The central theme of attachment theory is that primary caregivers who are available and responsive to an infants needs allow the child to develop a sense of security. The americancanadian psychologist mary ainsworth 191999 developed the strange. Born december 19 died in the year 1999 worked with john bowlby at tavistock clinic in england where she began her research of maternalinfant attachments known for her development of the strange situation assessment used to observe child attachment identified that three main. There are 8 episodes involved in the strange situation some of which. The procedure is conducted with someone who is assumed to be an attachment. Why mary ainsworth is important in child psychology. These are the sources and citations used to research attachment theory using strange situation. Ebook or pdf edited book email encyclopedia article govt. Situation procedure ssp to measure motherchild attachment and. It inclusion in the psychology press classic editions series reflects patterns of attachments continuing significance and insures its availability to new generations of.
Learn ainsworth attachment strange situation with free interactive flashcards. In conclusion, ainsworth and team have provided an excellent framework describing attachment theory and how attachment behaviors are quantitatively measured through ssp. The test is called the strange situation technique because it is conducted in a context that is unfamiliar to the child and therefore likely to heighten the childs need for his or her parent ainsworth. Babies and toddlers cant use words to tell us how they feel so mary ainsworth needed to find a way to allow them to show her. Mary ainsworth concluded that the strange situation could be used to identify the childs type of attachment has been criticized on the grounds that it identifies only the type of attachment to the mother. Ainsworth s strange situation study guide by taylamounter includes 22 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. In separation episodes such behaviors as crying and search increased. December 1, 19 march 21, 1999 1 was an americancanadian developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with the strange situation design, as well as her work in the development of attachment theory. Attachment theory was further developed by mary ainsworth 19 1999 and her assessment technique called the strange situation classification ssc. Mary dinsmore salter ainsworth is an american child development psychologist known for her work on emotional attachment of infants to their caregiver using the strange situation experiment along with her work in development of attachment theory. Scribd is the worlds largest social reading and publishing site.
December 1, 19 march 21, 1999 was an americancanadian developmental psychologist known for her work in the development of the attachment theory. The strange situation procedure, developed by american psychologist mary ainsworth, is widely used in child development research. Strange situation professor mary ainsworth and her student barbara wittig at johns hopkins university devised the strange situation procedure in the 1960s to demonstrate concepts central to john bowlbys ethological theory of attachment. The effects of repetition of the strange situation 12. Mary ainsworth december 1, 19 march 21, 1999 was a developmental psychologist perhaps best known for her strange situation assessment and contributions to the area of attachment theory. Of strange situation studies already reported in the literature, only two have been guided by an ethologicalevolutionaiy point of view. Ainsworth was a student of the leading developmental psychologist john bowlby. Broadly speaking, the attachment styles were 1 secure, 2 insecure ambivalent and avoidance. Bowlby established the foundation for ainsworth s attachment theory. Outline the procedure used in ainsworths strange situation and the classifications of attachment that result.
Born in glendale, ohio in 19, ainsworth was the eldest of the three daughters of the salter. Like bowlby, ainsworth also believed in the control systems but went a step further with the strange situation, which splits attachment up into three types. The research she had conducted is under being in experimental settings, and has been named as the strange situation. Mary ainsworth theory a strange situation in attachment. The bowlbyainsworth attachment theory behavioral and. The infant knows that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world. As such, it is difficult and timeconsuming to assess in homes and unconstrained outdoor settings. Mary ainsworth attachment styles simply psychology.
When ainsworth published the first results of the ssp in 1969, it seemed a completely novel and unique instrument. It uses many terms and concepts that you should already be familiar with from earlier work in the topic, e. Mary ainsworth s pioneering work has changed conceptions of infantmother relationships, and by extension, conceptions of human relationships more generally. Mary ainsworth went against this body of research because she believed that attachments were formed through a process that was much more complex than previously discussed. Ainsworth elaborated on bowlbys research on attachment and developed an approach to observing a childs attachment to a caregiver. Mary ainsworth proposed a method to help analysing human infants attachment types. Attachment psychology bibliographies cite this for me. The strange situation was a study that was conducted by ainsworth and wittig in 1969 in order to test the nature of attachment.
It applies to children between the age of nine and 18 months. The child may have a different type of attachment to the father or grandmother, for example lamb, 1977. Attachment theory using strange situation psychology. Relationships between infant behavior in the strange situation and maternal behavior at home 9. The strange situation mary ainsworth 1969 psychology. The study involved putting infants into situations that would either be anxietyprovoking or that the infant had probably never witnessed before. The aims of this study were to assess how infants between 9 and 18 months behave under conditions of mild stress in order to test stranger anxiety, separation anxiety and the secure base concept. Ainsworth and bell suggest that this study is a useful illustration of the shifting balance between exploratory and attachment behaviour as part of the evolutionary view of attachment. The americancanadian psychologist mary ainsworth 191999 developed the strange situation procedure ssp to measure motherchild attachment and attachment theorists have used it ever since. Developmental psychology studies you need to know owlcation. Megan white tiffany mcneish nikki devante jem rogich 2. S strange situation procedure wiley online library.
Mary ainsworth strange situation book patterns of attachment and over 8 million other books are available for amazon kindle. The strange situation was a testing procedure created by mary ainsworth et al. The ainsworth strange situation this behavior occurs across time and across contexts. Each of them has roots in the strange situation and the secure base concept presented in patterns of attachment. As an illustration of these concepts, a study is reported of 56 white, middleclass infants, 4951 weeks of age, in a strange situation. The study involves with having the infants and their mothers being at a strange room with toys. The strange situation was devised by ainsworth and wittig 1969 and was based on.
Although originally designed to elicit behaviors presumed to be universal among infants. Ainsworth and her colleagues created a laboratory test that measured an infants attachment to his or her parent. Mary ainsworth theory a strange situation in free download as word doc. Review of strange situation studies of two to fouryearolds 11. Evaluation on the the ainsworths strange situation. Mary ainsworths 1971, 1978 observational study of individual differences in attachment is described below. The ones marked may be different from the article in the profile. Wittig at johns hopkins university devised the strange situation procedure in the 1960s to demonstrate.
What the strange situation measures proximity seeking how close the child stays to the caregiver. The bowlby ainsworth attachment theory volume 2 issue 4 john bowlby. The strange situation is not a test of whether the infant is attached to the adult. Mary ainsworth and the strange situation technique. The strange situation is a procedure devised by mary ainsworth in the 1970s to observe attachment in children, that is relationships between a caregiver and child. The strange situation this is a method devised by ainsworth and bell to measure the type of attachment that a child has formed. Mary ainsworth died at the age of eightyfive of a massive stroke.
The aims of this study were to assess how infants between 9 and 18 months behave under conditions of mild stress in order to test stranger anxiety, separation anxiety and. The mary ainsworth attachment theory focuses on providing an explanation as to why there are individual differences in attachment. In 1969, american psychologist mary ainsworth developed a new procedure for studying attachment types in infants. The strange situation is a semistructured laboratory procedure that allows us to identify, without lengthy home observation, infants who effectively use a primary. John bowlby was the original founder of attachment theory this began after world war ii where he found many children became orphans at a very young age and concluded that attachment was crucial for development miler, 2011. Strange situation mary ainsworth, child, and attachment. A psychological study of the strange situation hardcover 12 feb separation. Pdf the americancanadian psychologist mary ainsworth 191999 developed the strange situation procedure ssp to measure. This cited by count includes citations to the following articles in scholar. The goal of the strange situation procedure is to provide an environment that would arouse in the infant both the motivation to explore and the urge to seek security. In the original study, 10to24 month old infants were subjected to a strange setting which involved the parent briefly leaving the child alone in a room and then returning, then a unfamiliar female entered the room, and the parent leaves the child for a second time, but. Today, as we enter the fourth generation of attachment study, we have a rich and growing catalogue of behavioral and narrative approaches to measuring attachment from infancy to adulthood.70 503 221 42 389 1140 1549 1220 1332 21 428 1541 1330 427 1285 1217 1246 1167 1014 1434 1486 680 1360 1605 1505 1008 82 1213 800 1523 697 894 333 249 1130 1324 727 332 726 1022 1280 31 1089 407 477